Mateo, J.M. 2007. Ecological and hormonal correlates of anti-predator behavior in Belding's ground squirrels (Spermophilus beldingi). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 62, 37-49.

Predator-prey relationships provide an excellent opportunity to study co-evolved adaptations. Decades of theoretical and empirical research have illuminated the various behavioral adaptations exhibited by prey animals to avoid detection and capture, and recent work has begun to characterize physiological adaptations, such as immune reactions, metabolic changes and hormonal responses to predators or their cues. A two-year study quantified the activity budgets and anti-predator responses of adult Belding's ground squirrels (Spermophilus beldingi) living in three different California habitats and likely experiencing different predation pressures. At one of these sites, which is visually closed and predators and escape burrows are difficult to see, animals responding to alarm calls remain alert longer and show more exaggerated responses than adults living in two populations that likely experience less intense predation pressure . They also spend more time alert and less time foraging than adults at the other two sites. A four-year study using non-invasive fecal sampling of cortisol metabolites revealed that S. beldingi living in the closed site also have lower corticoid levels than adults at the other two sites. The lower corticoids likely reflect that predation risk at this closed site is predictable, and might allow animals to mount large acute cortisol responses, facilitating escape from predators and enhanced vigilance while also promoting glucose storage for the approaching hibernation. Collectively, these data demonstrate that local environments and perceived predation risk influence not only foraging, vigilance and anti-predator behaviors, but adrenal functioning as well, which may be especially important for obligate hibernators that face competing demands on glucose storage and mobilization.